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Changing world situation and determine the conditions that China must continue to promote the development of democratic politics. Steady progress in democratic politics in China rather than to be only "running radical", otherwise from the situation, not of haste makes waste. However, this must not be drawn from democratic politics in China should "stop", "Suspension" of the conclusions. China's democratic politics can be summarized as "National People's Congress of democracy," "inner-party democracy" and "social democracy." Continue to promote China's democratic development, when taken, "Democratic National People's Congress, focusing on three with the advance of democracy," the path. Congress focus on promoting democracy, is set to be created from various conditions.
Since the reform and opening up, China's democratic politics in theory - system - and many other aspects of running has made remarkable development. These developments are valuable, welcome, and preliminary, primary. China must continue to promote the development of democratic politics, this is certainly not any individual's subjective preferences, but by the changing world situation and the situation dictates.
For a long time, one talked about democracy, people stressed that "national circumstances", the main emphasis on conditions in the various factors restricting the development of democracy, such as, economic and cultural backwardness of the traditional authoritarian and so forth. I believe that this emphasis is necessary. Accordingly, we can clearly understand that China made steady progress and democracy should not only "running radical", otherwise from the situation, not of haste makes waste. However, this must not be drawn from democratic politics in China should "stop", "Suspension" of the conclusions. Because the conditions of the existence of other factors - especially those who are changing factors - requirements of democratic politics to move forward. We said, "democracy must be adapted to national circumstances", should be from two dimensions to understand, we must see that the factors restricting the development of democracy, but also that those who seek to promote democratic development factors.
20 years, Chinese society is the most significant change from the planned economy towards a market economy. At the same time, a single pattern has also been changed to public ownership with public ownership dominant and diverse sectors of the economy development pattern. Non-public economy gradually expand, the iron law of market competition effect, determine social differentiation and clear of interests, social structure, stratification and complex. Triggered the social body (including individuals, groups, the rich, the poor) and the growing awareness of the benefits, interest demands increasingly strong. Moreover, many of the "demand" towards the political system, trying to influence public policy, it is often said that they constitute "political participation."
CPC loudly proposes to "expand the orderly participation in political affairs." "Widening", the desire to conform to the needs of public participation; "ordered" to ensure the social and political stability. It is necessary to "expand" but also "ordered", it must be "building a socialist political civilization, the development of socialist democratic politics," the political system to provide adequate resources to the growing political participation in democratic political systems, structures, mechanism, in accordance with established procedures, rules initiated.
To join the WTO as a symbol of China's increasing opening to the world, more and more into the torrents of economic globalization. As the world's economic, political, and cultural can not be completely separated from China in opening up the process, are bound to feel more and more turbulent tide of world democracy. China as a great civilization of open country, must not and will never exposure to the democratic trend in the world outside. Deng Xiaoping, he said: "Development is the last word!" - Is the last word of economic development, democracy and political development is also the last word.
Democratic National People's Congress, focusing on three with the advance of democracy
Continue to promote China's democratic development, when to take what "development path"? Theorists in recent years this has become a hot topic of concern. In short, mainly related to what is the focus of the entire democratic political development (or "breakthrough").
Democratic politics in China today, in my opinion, the main can be summarized as "three democracy": First, the system launched by the National People's Congress, is related to the exercise of state power, "Democratic Congress"; Second, the ruling party's "inner-party democracy" ; Third, the CPPCC, multi-party cooperation and grass-roots mass self-government as the main content, non-exercise of state power "social democracy." "Democratic Congress" and "social democracy" can also be collectively referred to as "people's democracy." Belong to the three democratic "country", "ruling party", "social" three different levels, all of great value. They are different each other, can not substitute for each other; also closely related, is difficult to completely separate. Therefore, on the whole, the author advocates of democracy while promoting the three, and promote each other to form the overall coordination of China's democratic political development, and should not be too partial and too much emphasis on the severity of priority. Indeed, in this context, appropriate focus, to focus on driving overall, it is preferable to the road.
So, what is key? Many scholars have pointed to the Democratic Party as the focus of China's democratic political development, while other scholars claim to the village (neighborhood) people self-government for the development focus. As for the recommendations to Congress focused on democracy, scholars are relatively uncommon. For I am concerned, tend to the Democratic National People's Congress of China's democratic political development as the focus.
In theory, "democracy" or "democracy" means the original intent of "people's power", "the majority of power." People as possible to where the "power" as a broad interpretation: for example, the power management of a village belonging to all the villagers, there will be some rural grassroots democracy; management of the power of a party belongs to all party members, there will be some party democracy. However, there is a national society, at least in a fairly long historical period, the most authoritative and most mandatory, undoubtedly the most important powers of state power. Therefore, "democracy" or "democracy", the first refers to "state power" meaning the "people's power", "most people's power." In the earliest use of "democracy" of the ancient Greek concept of "democracy" is seen as city-states (countries) form of government. Until modern times, "democracy" or "democracy" of the basic properties of the category of "a national form of a national form" is still broadly representative of the views. That is why in the world, people of a country's level of democracy, is always the first concern of its national power. For example, whether the helm of state power through democratic elections? Whether the structure of state power in line with democratic principles? The functioning of state power following democratic procedures? Whether the process of state power by democratic control? And so on. In short, the state power of democracy, a country largely concentrated expression of democracy, the typical form, the first signs. Hard to imagine that people will be "inner-party democracy" or "social democracy" as the main basis to measure the level of a country democratic.
Should be found "democracy" is about the first democratic state power, then the three of democracy in China today, only the National People's Congress of democracy is the exercise of state power, is a typical power of the countries of democracy, is the first democratic . In fact, the National People's Congress system is seen as "China's fundamental political system", the reason also is that it is the Chinese people exercise state power through the NPC democratic political system is the most important democratic political system. We will "first and foremost democracy," "the most important democratic political system" as the focus of democratic politics in China, should say "seize the principal contradiction", in theory, be able to stand for.
Then from the reality, transformation and development in China today, the demands of various interests - political participation, as reflected in public opinion, need to rise through the integration of public policy; large number of complex anomalies of the new problems, new problems, the formulation of public policies need to and implementation to deal with. Since the NPC is the only access to people's power through the election commission's public authorities, legislature, state organs, therefore, the NPC in reflecting public opinion, public opinion has played a unique integrated features. Meanwhile, the matter of national or regional political, economic, cultural and social development and other major issues, only the exercise of legislative power by Congress, the right to decide the nature of the state will be making a decision. Although the ruling party a major public policy plays a substantial role in the process, however, from the decision-making process of view, the ruling party organizations at all levels of the important decisions made by appropriate means advocates also have to be submitted to the NPC, the NPC to consider - vote - before it can be through the will of the state, can only be pursued by the government and other agencies. The reality of the past 20 years, most of China's major public policy outputs from the last National People's Congress (such as law and resolution). Played by the NPC this "final outputs" and "procedural function" committed to the development of democratic politics in China today is clearly essential. Moreover, the National People's Congress on behalf of the public, create and adjust or improve the major decision-making has begun to play some substantive features. Of course, far from the urgent need to strengthen.
Transformation and development in China today, the power control is a major weak link, has caused great concern in the whole country. And system design by the Constitution, the NPC is to represent the people supervise the government and other powers of the supreme authority of the organ. Urgently calling real supervision by the NPC, the NPC is also in monitoring the progress has indeed been some new. For example, the recent National People's Congress on the audit supervision strengthened, some local people's congresses exercise their "veto", "question authority", "recall", "the right to investigate specific issues" and begin to monitor more seriously, "one government and two houses "to obtain some results, also had no small influence in society. However, still many have inadequate supervision by the NPC, should be strengthened.
Reality shows that the Democratic Congress has played a number of effects, and accumulated much experience as the focus of China's democratic political development, not only reasonable, but is based. Meanwhile, in order to better respond to real people to the great democracy that it issued an urgent call to truly become a de facto "first democracy" and "the most important democracy," as the focus of China's democratic political development, but also the necessary and appropriate The.
To focus on promoting democracy and creating home conditions of the NPC
Congress focus on promoting democracy, is set to be created from various conditions.
First, improve the CPC's leadership and governance, scientific and standardized the relationship between the Party Committee and the NPC.
Modern democratic politics is inseparable from political parties, this is a universal law. As some scholars have pointed out, "party democratic political system is based." "Modern democracy rests in the hands of political parties." Situation in China is the first democratic government after a political party, including the people's congress system all of the democratic system, including some historical background, initiated by the CPC and promote the establishment of the. Party has always led the National People's Congress, which is the "World Love" and "conditions" dictates. The problem is, there are two different style of leadership, we should clarify its different characteristics. Within the same organizational system superior to subordinate leaders, means that you can give orders, give instructions, and with the mandatory requirements of lower level is subordinate and disciplined execution, which can be called "rigid leadership." From a legal sense, the party with the Congress, not the same organization, the relationship between upper and lower levels within the system. Party through appropriate channels (such as the National People's Congress party in the) output-related (and other candidates on the decision-making or cadres) argued that only "recommended" and "recommended." Publicity to the National People's Congress party should claim the right to explain his reasons. In consideration of the NPC, if the majority of representatives supported this correct, and by the vote, the party claims to be the law or resolution of the NPC, it means that the party leadership in its correct position (to lead and guide) the National People's Congress. By virtue of not calling the shots here, but the "propaganda and interpretation"; not mandatory, but "on behalf of the identity" may be called "soft leadership."
In the past emphasized the party's leadership, often with the kind of "rigid leadership" confused. It is in some places, "insisted the party's leadership" of the NPC under the slogan of "rigid" (mandatory) intervention, leading to ring true relationship between the Party and the NPC, the NPC effect is difficult to place. If you can truly understanding the different ways to clarify the characteristics of the two leaders, it is possible in practice to improve the party's leadership to rationalize the relationship between the Party and the NPC. Congress not only adhere to the party's leadership ("flexibility"), but also make people responsible for the independent exercise of powers conferred by the Constitution.
Second, the close relationship between the NPC and the voters, and enhance the ability of the NPC integration of public opinion.
Democratic National People's Congress is a representative democracy after all. The greatest danger to representative democracy is the "agent" separation, departure from the "commissioning", so as a sovereign people "zero." For Congress to maintain a close relationship with the electorate, we must first improve elections. Deputies should be elected the candidate is willing to (and not only "can") and the voters to meet commitments to the voters and answer voter questions, allow voters to understand the premise of the candidates to make a choice situation. In this way, voters will elect representatives to the trust, willing to express their opinion. Meanwhile, the representative must be regular contact with voters through a variety of ways, public opinion and public opinion in time to enter the NPC or its Standing Committee. In the interests of the already divided society, "public opinion" must diversify heterogeneous. NPC and its Standing Committee, this "factory of public opinion" should be members from the improved quality, sound and other aspects of the proceedings the ability to enhance the integration of public opinion. For example, it is necessary to establish a "General Assembly speech system", to overcome the limitations considered by the delegation. On this basis, should be a gradual introduction of the "debate on the system" so that different voices (including the small number of representatives of the sound) in the full identification of the collision and running in the stand, and then enter the "majority voting" (voting) process. In fact, as early as 1956, Zhou Enlai proposed NPC "will also be debated in the General Assembly" proposition. Half a century later, it might be on the agenda will come up.
Third, the practical implementation of constitutional supervision, democratic accountability act contrary to the NPC.
Committed to democratic politics in China today must establish the supreme authority of the Constitution. How to conduct effective supervision of the Constitution to protect the implementation of the Constitution? Over the years scholars have published a variety of insights. I add here: the Democratic Congress should be monitoring the implementation of the vision also included within the constitutional supervision! NPC system since it is the Constitution's fundamental political system, then the "implementation of the Constitution" a matter of course includes the implementation of fundamental political system. "Monitoring implementation of the constitution," of course includes the supervision of the NPC system (NPC democracy) implementation.
Fourth, encourage all based on different "regional situation", according to local conditions to carry out exploration.
NPC to promote the development of democracy requires in theory - the system - to run continue to carry out various aspects of exploration. As China's size and range of conditions and the development of unbalanced development, should encourage all according to their "regional situation", according to local conditions of exploration and innovation, rather than the pursuit of national "one size fits all", "march." The development of democracy in China should meet the "World Love", "conditions", "Love Zone" this "three conditions." Ten years ago, some parts of the first to try to "government houses" and related leaders of "working council" and "judged by reporting", and later in many parts of the country to promote, promote the function of supervision by the NPC to play. In recent years, some parts of the "election" in some places of the deputies set up a "representative of Studio", and some local people's congress supervision of the government and media collaborative work. Facts show that to some of the regions first "test" together is desirable. Of course, all over the exploration and innovation should not conflict with the law and orderly development of the case. Local people's congresses should be good this "off", the Standing Committee on the level you should conduct a legal supervision.
Fifth, refer to the "stone hills," Democracy used for the NPC.
Democratic politics as the common achievements of human political civilization, certainly has a "universal" side; democratic politics is always in a specific country within a national presence, it is also bound to have some "special adaptive." In fact, everything in the world, and both are "universal" and "special suitability" of unity. Its "universal" democratic politics in different countries should learn from each other. After the onset of China as a democratic country, we need more to learn from early onset of democratic countries, "he mountain stone." To I can see, in addition to history, we have from the West "brought" the number of democratic theory, elections, representative procedures, etc., the current constitution and on the Standing Committee members shall not "government houses" duties requirements to include the "separation of powers" doctrine of Inspiration. Because of their "special suitability", we did not copy the "separation of powers" model. Moreover, even "used" those "stone hills", always according to their own national conditions, after a certain amount of polish after the "foreign." Democratic National People's Congress in order to promote democracy in China as a whole, we must learn from the achievements of political civilization of mankind, without copying the model of another country. (From the "People's politics") of: Pu Xing Zu (Shanghai)